Making Quotas Work: The Effect of Gender Quota Laws on the Election of Women.
Gender and Political Empowerment
Full Harvard Reference:
Schwindt-Bayer, L.A. (2009). Making Quotas Work: The Effect of Gender Quota Laws on the Election of Women. Legislative Studies Quarterly. Vol. 34, No. 1 pp 5-28.
This paper presents a cross-national, statistical test that analyses how three key dimensions of candidate quota laws affect women’s representation. The results show that quotas that require more women to be on party ballots lead to the election of more women, independent of placement mandates and enforcement mechanisms, but rules governing where female candidates are listed on the ballot and sanctions for noncompliance amplify that effect. Candidate quotas can increase women’s representation, but the quotas’ effectiveness depends on their design.